Babb, Sanora, Dorothy Babb, and Douglas Wixson. United States. In 1935, it was transferred and reorganized under the Department of Agriculture and renamed the Soil Conservation Service.  Two days later, the same storm reached cities to the east, such as Cleveland, Buffalo, Boston, New York City, and Washington, D.C. That winter (1934–1935), red snow fell on New England. The federal government encouraged settlement and development of the Plains for agriculture via the Homestead Act of 1862, offering settlers ”quarter section” 160-acre (65 ha) plots. The drought came in three waves, 1934, 1936, and 1939–1940, but some regions of the High Plains experienced drought conditions for as many as eight years.  The drought came in three waves, 1934, 1936, and 1939–1940, but some regions of the High Plains experienced drought conditions for as many as eight years. Nearly one-third of all migrants were professional or white-collar workers. The Dust Bowl And Hobos The Dust Bowl was caused, in large part, by excessive tillage of the soil. The 2014 science fiction film Interstellar features a ravaged 21st-century America which is again scoured by dust storms (caused by a worldwide pathogen affecting all crops). In History.  Migrants also influenced musical culture wherever they went. Denver-based Associated Press reporter Robert E. Geiger happened to be in Boise City, Oklahoma, that day. Parents packed up "jalopies" with their families and a few personal belongings, and headed west in search of work. Dust Bowl. Specifically, Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures appear to have had an indirect effect on the general atmospheric circulation, while Pacific sea surface temperatures seem to have had the most direct influence.. The government still encouraged continuing the use of conservation methods to protect the soil and ecology of the Plains. At the same time, technological improvements such as mechanized plowing and mechanized harvesting made it possible to operate larger properties without increasing labor costs. , In 2017, Americana recording artist Grant Maloy Smith released the album Dust Bowl – American Stories, which was inspired by the history of the Dust Bowl. This picture expressed the struggles of people caught by the Dust Bowl and raised awareness in other parts of the country of its reach and human cost. Associated Press reporter Robert E. Geiger happened to be in Boise City, Oklahoma, to witness the "Black Sunday" black blizzards of April 14, 1935; Edward Stanley, the Kansas City news editor of the Associated Press, coined the term "Dust Bowl" while rewriting Geiger's news story.. The area is semiarid, receiving less than 20 inches (510 mm) of rain annually; this rainfall supports the shortgrass prairie biome originally present in the area. Developed in 1937 to speed up the process and increase returns from pasture, the "hay method" was originally supposed to occur in Kansas naturally over 25–40 years. The Act shifted the parity goal from price equality of agricultural commodities and the articles that farmers buy to income equality of farm and non-farm population. The economy adjusted predominantly through large relative population declines in more-eroded counties, both during the 1930s and through the 1950s.:1500. Because of this long seige of dust and every building being filled with it, the air has become stifling to breathe and many people have developed sore throats and dust colds as a result. Join us for a virtual lesson on the Great Depression and American Dust Bowl! From 1910 to the 1940s, total farmland increased and remained constant until 1970 when it slightly declined. written by Lynette Boone, University of Oregon References. By 1940, counties that had experienced the most significant levels of erosion had a greater decline in agricultural land values.  In a review, the music magazine No Depression wrote that the album's lyrics and music are "as potent as Woody Guthrie, as intense as John Trudell and dusted with the trials and tribulations of Tom Joad – Steinbeck and The Grapes of Wrath.  When severe drought struck the Great Plains region in the 1930s, it resulted in erosion and loss of topsoil because of farming practices at the time.  Dust Bowl conditions fomented an exodus of the displaced from Texas, Oklahoma, and the surrounding Great Plains to adjacent regions. Allitt p 211, paraphrasing William Cronin's evaluation of Mathew Paul Bonnifield, Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "What we learned from the Dust Bowl: lessons in science, policy, and adaptation", "Did dust storms make the Dust Bowl drought worse? LinkedIn with Background FDR in an address on the AAA commented. The fine soil of the Great Plains was easily eroded and carried east by strong continental winds. Learn more about what caused the stock market crash and see a demonstration of what caused the dust storms of the 1930s followed by a fun activity you can enjoy together at home. On April 14, 1935, known as "Black Sunday", 20 of the worst "black blizzards" occurred across the entire sweep of the Great Plains, from Canada south to Texas. The soil became so dry that it turned to dust. Although government took measures to try and end it themselves, they didn’t see much immediate success. This catastrophe intensified the economic impact of the Great Depression in the region. If it wasn’t for the geography of the Great Plains, the invention of the tractor, and the droughts, the Dust Bowl would have never existed, and times back then would be much easier. The rapid mechanization of farm equipment, especially small gasoline tractors, and widespread use of the combine harvester contributed to farmers' decisions to convert arid grassland (much of which received no more than 10 inches (~250 mm) of precipitation per year) to cultivated cropland.  During the drought of the 1930s, the unanchored soil turned to dust, which the prevailing winds blew away in huge clouds that sometimes blackened the sky. Spearman and Hansford County have been literaly [sic] in a cloud of dust for the past week. If there had been no Government program, if the old order had obtained in 1933 and 1934, that drought on the cattle ranges of America and in the corn belt would have resulted in the marketing of thin cattle, immature hogs and the death of these animals on the range and on the farm, and if the old order had been in effect those years, we would have had a vastly greater shortage than we face today.  The abandonment of homesteads and financial ruin resulting from catastrophic topsoil loss led to widespread hunger and poverty. Beginning on May 9, 1934, a strong, two-day dust storm removed massive amounts of Great Plains topsoil in one of the worst such storms of the Dust Bowl. Dust Bowl Facts ~ Great Depression. Aside from the short-term economic consequences caused by erosion, there were severe long-term economic consequences caused by the Dust Bowl. Animals determined unfit for human consumption were killed; at the beginning of the program, more than 50 percent were so designated in emergency areas. :3 Even over the long-term, the agricultural value of the land often failed to recover to pre-Dust Bowl levels. In many regions, more than 75% of the topsoil was blown away by the end of the 1930s. Waves of European settlers arrived in the plains at the beginning of the 20th century. ", The change in the total value of agricultural land and revenue was quite similar over the twentieth century. Here are some interesting facts about the Dust Bowl: •In 1932, there were 14 dust storms recorded on the Plains (an area that included the panhandle of Oklahoma and Texas, southwest Kansas, southeastern Colorado, and Nebraska). During this time, total population increased steadily, but there was a slight dip in trend from 1930 to 1960. About one-eighth of California's population is of Okie heritage. The Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and New Deal in Oklahoma What was the Dust Bowl? The DRS bought cattle in counties which were designated emergency areas, for $14 to $20 a head. The event is completely FREE. Without the indigenous grasses in place, the high winds that occur on the plains picked up the topsoil and created the massive dust storms that marked the Dust Bowl period. Land degradation varied widely. 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