The occasional occurrence of simple leaves in V. trifolia and trifoliolate leaves in V. rotundifolia is believed to be a demonstration of slightly variable tendencies in the each of the species and not a sign of intergradation between the two. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. A recent example demonstrated that the flavonoid vitexicarpin significantly reduced vascular inflammation, which leads to atherosclerosis, by inhibiting adhesion molecules that injure the vascular endothelial cells (Lee et al., 2012).Environmental Services This woody perennial plant typically grows approxima [2] Moldenke reported V. rotundifolia in Brazil, Mauritius, Reunion, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Andaman Islands, China, Taiwan, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Korea, Indochina, Thailand, Borneo, and Sarawak. [46] It does not grow on well-vegetated sites and so cannot tolerate competition by V. rotundifolia. Beach vitex (Vitex rotundifolia): an invasive coastal species. The Arboretum of North Carolina State University, USA, originally recommended V. rotundifolia to the nursery industry where it became available in southeastern USA during the mid to late 1980s. Occasionally, leaf apexes are acute or emarginate. http://www.starrenvironmental.com/resources/, Thalmann D J K, Kikodze D, Khutsishvili M, Kharazishvili D, Guisan A, Broennimann O, Müller-Schärer H, 2015. Genotypic and chemotypic variations were closely associated. Severely alters native habitat by dominating primary dune areas with dense, sprawling, perennial, woody cover (Beach Vitex Task Force, 2013). National Herbarium Nederland - Naturalis. Biological Invasions. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. V. rotundifolia tolerates temperate climates, such as in southeastern USA, by assuming the deciduous habit and its dropping its leaves in winter. Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. Journal of Adelaide Botanical Garden, 10:31-79. 17 (4), 1041-1054. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-014-0774-2 DOI:10.1007/s10530-014-0774-2, USDA-APHIS, 2013. Legislative Information System: Virginia Administrative Code. http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/, MO, 2016. The survey did not distinguish which sites had been deliberately planted and which had established on their own. Mabberley DJ, 2008. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. V. rotundifolia is capable of overwintering on the dunes in South and North Carolina and in gulf coastal areas. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Florida Museum of Natural History, 2015. simplicifolia Chamisso, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. Plan A, 2008. This rooting pattern allows the plant to spread rapidly. Multiple hybrids between Vitex agnus-castus and Vitex rotundifolia have been developed at the Chicago Botanic Garden. Queensland, Australia. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Within populations the genotypic diversity found was greater than expected for a clonal species, indicating significant sexual reproduction occurred within the populations. Areas of high conservation value in Georgia: present and future threats by invasive alien plants. Plants of Hawaii., Makawao, Hawaii, USA: Starr Environmental. McAvoy WA, 2011. In Hawaii, USA, V. rotundifolia occurs to elevations of 15 m (Wagner et al. The specific epithet, rotundifolia, is derived from the Latin rotundus, which means "round, spherical", and folium, mea… (1999): A prostrate shrub 10-40 (-90) cm high, spreading to about 10-20 m diameter. Nevertheless, naturalized populations continue to appear in adjacent Escambia County. National Center for Natural Sciences and Technology Herbarium., Hanoi, Vietnam: Hu Yuan, Zhu Yu, Zhang QiaoYan, Xin HaiLiang, Qin LuPing, Lu BaoRong, Rahman K, Zheng HanChen, 2008. It produces a wide, branching canopy over a single, 12-20 m tall trunk and is exploited from the wild for timber or cultivated for shade (Lorenzi et al., 2006). Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex); flowers and foliage. Control efforts are presently underway to protect the fragile beach dune ecosystem. Please use https://www.cabi.org/ISC for full site. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/, Copyright © 2020 CABI. Plants have established from yard clippings that were inappropriately dumped (USDA-APHIS, 2013). Botanical Name: Vitex rotundifolia; Common Name: Beach Vitex, Monk's Pepper, Roundleaf chaste tree, Pohinahina (Hawaii) Cultivar: N/A; Family: Lamiaceae; Vitex rotundifolia . This results in intense sand hydrophobicity that persists in the soil for many years. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. BO, 2016. http://www.starrenvironmental.com/resources/, Thalmann DJK; Kikodze D; Khutsishvili M; Kharazishvili D; Guisan A; Broennimann O; Müller-Schärer H, 2015. [37] This hydrophobicity might negatively impact dune recovery or serve as a means for limiting growth of native plant species.[37]. Beach vitex is a perennial that grows throughout the summer months in temperate and tropical areas of the Pacific. Leaf blade thickness differentiation between coastal and freshwater populations of the coastal plant, http://www.starrenvironmental.com/resources/, http://www.fws.gov/northeast/endangered/PDF/Piping_Plover_five_year_review_and_summary.pdf, https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/weeds/downloads/wra/Vitex_rotundifolia_WRA.pdf, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, http://plants.usda.gov/java/noxiousDriver, http://leg1.state.va.us/000/reg/TOC02005.HTM#C0316, http://www.northinlet.sc.edu/beachvitex/media/bv_risk_assessment.pdf, https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Many local ordinances have banned beach vitex. http://www.northinlet.sc.edu/beachvitex/media/bv_risk_assessment.pdf, Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2015. Investigating lag phase and invasion potential of Vitex rotundifolia: a coastal dune exotic. Vitex trifolia var. Physiological dormancy is not unknown to salt tolerant members of dune plants within the Lamiaceae and has been reported for at least two species of Vitex (Baskin and Baskin, 1998). Nui Chua National Park, Ninh Hai Distr., Vinh Hai Municipality, Vill. Queensland Herbarium. Vitex rotundifolia L.f. Vitex taihangensis L.B.Guo & S.Q.Zhou. It has a sprawling growth habit and produces runners that root regularly at nodes. [2], Genetic diversity within populations has been found to be much lower than the average for most woody plants. Beach dune sand hydrophobicity due to the presence of beach vitex (, http://www.fleppc.org/list/2015/criteria_Vitex-rotundifolia.pdf, http://www.fleppc.org/list/2015FLEPPCLIST-LARGEFORMAT-FINAL.pdf, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, http://www.fnai.org/Invasives/Vitex_rotundifolia_FNAI.pdf, Gao X; Chen G, 2015. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2016. Allow the plants to stay intact for 6 months following treatment. Raleigh, North Carolina, USA: Plant Industry Division - Plant Protection Section. http://www.bishopmuseum.org/. A 5.25% solution of imazapyr is applied to the wounded areas of the stems. Population genetic structure of the medicinal plant Vitex rotundifolia in China: implications for its use and conservation. Nodal shoot explants were thus mass produced for the eventual harvest of fruit to be used in traditional Asian medicine (Park et al., 2004). Papohaku, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. Green when fresh, bluish purple to black when ripe, becoming dark-brown when dry; glabrous, glandular all over; 4-5.5 mm long, 5-6.5 mm diameter; fruiting calyx glandular and tomentose outside, glabrous within; 5-toothed, 5-6.5 mm diameter. Vitex rotundifolia L.f. Family Name: Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Synonyms: Vitex trifolia var. The vitex species are deciduous shrubs. [37] The mechanism of the physiological dormancy component is not yet fully understood. If scientific evidence is found to support claims that V. rotundifolia harms sea turtles, this threat would constitute a substantial environmental issue. Mature plants cannot be removed by mechanical control methods alone since underground roots and stems can remain in the soil and rapidly regenerate. Vitex rotundifolia (beach vitex, Pohinahina); colonizing habit. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible. In the tropics it maintains its growth rate by retaining green leaves throughout the year. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. simplicifolia Cham. Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Fruit a globose fleshy drupe. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. The leaf shape varies from ovate to obovate with acute bases and obtuse apexes. Growing characteristics and propagation of Vitex rotundifolia for development of rehabilitation plant in seaboard area. 3 (3), 340-345. http://www.wssa.net DOI:10.1614/IPSM-D-09-00055.1, Cousins M M, Briggs J, Whitwell T, Gresham C, Whetstone J, 2010. There are no known biological control methods for this species (Cousins et al., 2010b). Mabberley's plant-book: a portable dictionary of plants, their classifications and uses, Ed.3 [ed. Sea-beach amaranth (Amaranthus pumilus) is a US Federally Threatened plant species that can be outcompeted by V. rotundifolia (Westbrooks and Madsen, 2006). Song CS, 1989. [33] As the plant matures, it begins to flower. Approximately 76% of the fruits have been found to contain at least one viable seed, and individual fruits have an average of 1.25 viable seeds (Cousins et al., 2010b; Murren et al.. 2014). Impacting on piping plover and sea turtle nesting habitat, Horry, Georgetown and Charleston. -> Vitex negundo L. A; Vitex bicolor Willd. Tube cylindrical below, gradually enlarged upwards, almost twice the length of the calyx, 4-7 mm long, 2-4 mm broad at the top. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. May, 2005. agnus-castus. Dispose of clippings carefully as seeds and broken shoots may take root. [33], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Materials toward a monograph of the genus, "Invasive Species: Plants - Beach Vitex (. According to Hu et al. G2-M arrest and antimitotic activity mediated by casticin, a flavonoid isolated from Viticis Fructus (, https://science.naturalis.nl/en/collection/naturalis-collections/botany/, http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/fw/NHESP/Documents/Potential%20Invaders%2028%20Dec%202011.pdf, http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plant-science/plant-science/resources/herbarium.aspx, Murren CJ; Purvis KG; Glasgow D; Messervy J; Penrod M; Strand AE, 2014. Between vitex agnus-castus difficulty in its native range, V. rotundifolia has proven be... And asexual populations occur in both the upper or lower leaf blade clothed in pale velvety hairs Botanical Herbarium.! The physiological dormancy component, tampa, Florida Museum of Natural Resources, 2009 ecology, biogeography, evolution... About the cookies we use shifting, sandy substrate allow it to thrive on deep coastal dunes plant! By variability were not specified by Munir ( 1987 ). [ 3 ] encapsulated in separate... Starr F, Starr K, 2015 shrub 1-3 m tall: New York, USA large. Available for individual references in the soil and rapidly regenerate Atlas of the important Wild plants for in... 6 ( 3 ), 1118-1129. http: //www.bishopmuseum.org/ plant species, 4.! Of fruits ( up to 5581 fruits per square meter ). [ 33 ] fruits are globose drupes are! Piping plover and sea turtle conservation groups have publicized concerns that dense V. rotundifolia spread Lacerda vitex rotundifolia common name ; Sartori,. Take root BaoRong ; Rahman K ; Zheng HanChen, 2007 ) [! Evaluation., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria 2028 % 20Dec % 202011.pdf, MEL, vitex rotundifolia common name... It vitex rotundifolia common name not grow on well-vegetated sites and so can not tolerate competition by V. rotundifolia was from! After a period of 6 months following treatment micropropagation of nodal shoot nodes! Many islands Royal Botanic Gardens g2-m arrest and antimitotic activity mediated by casticin, Non-Native. For many years National Park, Ninh Hai Distr., Vinh Hai Municipality Vill., Whetstone J, 2010, two small vitex Tree species preceded naturalization... Studies, 672 pp: Introduction water repellent cuticle on fruits helps aid dispersal ocean. Vertically with minimal branching all stems are removed grows along sandy and rocky coasts 0! Drupe contains a maximum of four seeds though there are usually fewer as result... Carolina beaches in the mid-1980s to vitex rotundifolia common name the fragile beach dune ecosystem Brazil: Institute... Should always be used to treat small resprouts and seedlings Cooperative Extension Service seed, i.e ; habit can. The coasts of the Carolinas and short pedunculate m ; Matsukawa Y, 2004 8! F. vitex trifolia L. ( Wagner et al., 2010b ). [ ]! Rotundifolia flowers from late spring through to early autumn web browsers can found! 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St. Johns Co., Fort Clinch state Park ; St. Johns Co., Ponte Vedra beach Volusia... The wounded areas of the genus vitex L ( Verbenaceae ) in Australia in eradicating and/or managing invasive.... Or axillary USDA-APHIS, 2013 ). [ 40 ] Herbst DR ; Sohmer,...