Pre-Owned. It had been lying around in the dirt and water for many years, hence the corrosion. Brass.75 mm artillery shell..French "Soisante-quinze" 75mm model 1897 field gun was the most universal weapon of the French artillery during World War I. This is a brass artillery shell casing from a French 75mm canon. (Photo: Ben Philippi/Guns.com). (Photo: Library of Congress). US scientists with a full-scale cut-away model of the W48 155 millimeter nuclear artillery shell, a very small tactical nuclear weapon with an explosive yield equivalent to 72 tons of TNT (0.072 kiloton ). Thousands were built and by the end of the war it had become the standard weapon of the United States Army. It’s not unlike owning a machine gun or suppressor. The ammo seen in the above video was located. Possibly filled by Puteaux and Lyon but I stand corrected as I am uncertain. Need help understanding markings on french 75mm artillery gun shell. Dom Spano (right) and his friend set up his circa 1943 G.E.-produced 75mm M116 Pack Howitzer at the Green Mountain Boys machine gun shoot in Eden, Vermont in 2014. I recently had the good fortune to receive a new ammunition line from CCI called Clean-22. Photo inside. He collects artillery, military vehicles, and select-fire weapons. TRENCH ART - ARTILLERY SHELL CASING - 75MM - FRANCE. Time left 6d 5h left. Favourite Add to WW1 British Trench Art Brass Vase - 18PR Artillery Shell Casing BonjourAntiques. Artillery shell for sale 2x WW1 1910s French Trench Art Brass Artillery Shell 75 DEC 75mm Floral Cracks: 19.99 £ | HMS Victory Leather Artillery Shell Carrier + Update your shipping location 7 S 0 P O N S O A R P A 7 E E D-1-1 U J-1 0 F J-1-1. The gun also proved useful in fighting on islands across the Pacific, where its small size came in handy on inland trails carved through the jungle. French 400mm shell, weight 900 kg. Trench Art Wwi Officerand039s Hat Made From A Rare Pdps 37-85 French Artillery Shell. (Mort Homme - Verdun) Date. 5 out of 5 stars (3) 3 reviews. Although he never ran the serial numbers to see if his gun saw action in WWII, he was pretty confident that it had. From United States. It had a muzzle velocity of 1,250 feet-per-second, which sounds low but keep in mind this was for a 14.7-pound shell. Watch Brass WW2 USA 75MM M5A1 Pack How. Wartime scheme of French and Austrian super-heavy artillery shells with heavy wall thickness, full steel head and threaded base with base fuze hole. Le canon francais de 75 mm - Duration: 4:21. TULIP Artillery Shell Case TRENCH ART WWII. The versatile and mobile French 75mm cannon was a revolutionary design that saw widespread use during both world wars. From United Kingdom. Same size as the French ones above, but not quite the same as a WW1 French case in terms of history. They relied almost entirely on the shell's velocity for their lethality. (Mémorial de Verdun) Huge threaded base of a German heavy artillery shell, supposedly 380 mm. I haven’t been able to find one but your suggestion makes sense…. A nice family souvenir. Powered by Discourse, best viewed with JavaScript enabled, 75mm Field Gun Shell - Marking Identification Help. In British service, the AP shell was used without its explosive filling, and as such was referred to as "AP Shot M61". The attack is violent on the outside; we remain close together, man to man, inundated by the shell from the French artillery. Stay in the know. Initial development relied on several advancements prior to 1897 which included the use of single-piece ammunition containing both shell and charge as well as "smokeless" powder, a "rotating screw" type breech mechanism and a … 0 bids. From left to right: 90 mm shrapnel shell, 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell, 77/14 model – 75 mm high-explosive shell, model 16–75 mm shrapnel shell. But some in private hands aren’t demilled. It had been lying around in the dirt and water for many years, hence the corrosion. "PD Ps" is the Parc d'Artillerie de Paris, the manufacturer "1149 L 17" means Lot 1149, in the year 1917. On October 4, 1918, a building at the shell loading plant exploded causing the evacuation of South Amboy. 3. Typically artillery shell casings are manufactured in the same way as small arms shell casings, by drawing them out from a cup or a disc of metal (Figure 4). This gun can be broken down into six pieces and dropped to the position by parachute.” (Photo: Pvt. It met a need for a compact artillery piece that could be moved across difficult terrain, replacing the 1900s-era Vickers Mountain Gun previously used for that purpose. PAIR ANTIQUE WWI FRENCH 75mm SHELL CASE VASES TRENCH ART VINE PATTERN. I cannot identify the D or H factories but cases were made in 1915 and 1916. The AP shell for the 75 mm gun was a 15 lb (6.8 kg) projectile with a couple of ounces (60 g) of HE filling propelled by a 2 lb (900 g) charge to 2,000 feet per second (610 m/s). I imagine that “D.240L.15.D” implies some sort of ‘Lot number’ and date but cant make sense of it (maybe 1915?). Save 75mm artillery shell to get e-mail alerts and updates on your eBay Feed. However, metal casings have also been constructed by riveting or fastening the head to a coil of sheet metal that forms the body (Figure 5). Thank you for sharing. All Rights Reserved. The French 75mm was the most common WW I French artillery piece. The tank and field guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition. I’ve always heard great things about old Colt revolvers, and let’s just say this gun made me think twice about my stance on revolvers. That prevalence in 1918-19 explains why its barely modified descendants still took part in World War II. Brass .75 mm artillery shell. 7 bids. I have been carrying a Kimber M1911 concealed for about 25 years. I suspect that PX is the makers mark, however my research has only yielded PX as “Unknown Factory, France”. A series of special “paracrates” was designed for the gun to be dropped in nine disassembled loads to include a starter-pack of 10 shells and support gear. At the top there is also what appears to be an underlined “F” which is also a mystery to me. Panther Tank 75mm … Marked: C/97.98 and KARLSRUHE, VI and 1903 Crowned M = Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) arsenal's acceptance stamp: 3,7 cm Hotchkiss. VERDUN, FRANCE - AUGUST 26: An unexploded French 75mm artillery shell from World War I found by a local farmer lies next to a field at Brabant-sur-Meuse on August 26, 2014 near Verdun, France. The 75mm M116 Pack Howitzer was designed in the United States in the 1920s. Finding ammunition is often the hardest part of owning a howitzer. Below is a screen shot of the icon line, I marked the pencil icon with a little blue star. This 57 mm gun took advantage of a number of the most advanced artillery technologies available at the time: Binfcmy artillery activity in HALT reached new heights on the ANZ10 Beachhead. Its official French designation was: Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897, but it was commonly known as the “French 75” or simply the “75”. Pre-Owned. Both of the primers have been drilled-out to different extents. Drawing is probably the most common method of constructing casings. Typically referred to as the “Pack Seventy-Five” the gun was designed so that it could be broken down into several pieces to be carried by pack animals such as mules. French 3,7 cm Hotchkiss: German 3,7 cm Hotchkiss: 3,7 cm Hotchkiss. Despite the superiority of the French Chassepot rifles and the increasingly visible fire power of the artillery and infantry, the appearance of polygonal rifling, smokeless powder, precision rifles, Gaitling machine guns was ignored by the French high command. $39.99. The standard field piece was the 75mm mle 1897 which was … GoldenGully. CCI Clean Offers a Mess Free Solution in .22 LR. Loading factory is at 3 o’clock. Wait: Seems like Puteaux would be a good possibility for the Px marking. Jack - do we know whether there was ever a munitions factory in Puteaux? Finding ammunition is often the hardest part of owning a howitzer. Gun Review: Going the Distance with the Kimber Rapide Black Ice 10mm. Then, just add powder and you’re all set to go. It is a fire of hell." Maybe our British friends can shed some light on the British use of these. “As long as it’s maintained properly, the gun fires reliably and safely,” he said. Pieces weighed between 160- and 235-pounds each. This 75 mm artillery shell was part of a lamp stand made in 1919 as a memorial to a disaster at the T. A. Gillespie Company Shell Loading Plant in Morgan, New Jersey. Still hoping to find out a bit more about the headstamps on mine. Metal furnisher. From shop BonjourAntiques. The ammo seen in the above video was located. Provided the airborne cannoneers could find all of the pieces to reassemble the gun quickly, they were in business. 5 out of 5 stars (115) 115 reviews £ 67.19. The 75 mm tank gun has its origins in the famous French Canon de 75 modèle 1897 field gun of World War I fame, which was also adopted by the United States and used well into World War II as the 75 mm M1897 field gun. . WWI US ARMY TRENCH ART 75 MM SKULL & BONES ARTILLERY SHELL DECAPRIO FLOWER VASE. Same size as the French ones above, but not quite the same as a WW1 French case in terms of history. Estate Ww1 . French field artillery regiments consisted of 75mm field guns, 105mm howitzers and 155mm howitzers. William E. Miller/U.S. Rare Parrott Flat Top Bolt Artillery Shell Cannonball 10 Lband039er. French Brass Artillery Shell with Hand Carved Oak Leaves. When the U.S. became involved in World War I, space on ships was limited and manpower had priority over heavy equipment, so American troops often used French heavy equipment, including this 75mm field gun. Tom- The 75mm M18 is the same size (75 x 350mm) as the French 75, but is actually the standard U.S. 75mm gun cartridge case, either as a wheel mounted field gun, or in the various tanks using 75mm guns (M3 Grant/Lee or M4 Sherman, etc). See Price. The 75mm M116 Pack Howitzer was designed in the United States in the 1920s. It was also supplied to foreign forces. Not only have the forward units been shelled continuously, but rear areas including Army, Corps, Air Corps, and Naval installations have been shelled intermittently with heavy caliber guns. Well it was made in Canada, so it probably has some French heritage. Original caption: “Artillerymen of 463rd Paratrooper Battalion prepare to fire 75MM Pack Howitzer in snow-covered position near Haguenau, France, 1945. The French 75mm Field Gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted by the French Army in March, 1898. Many of the weapons in these regiments dated back to the Great War and in 1939 the French had around 4000 105mm and 155mm guns and howitzers. But as Sportclay already wrote, please start a new thread as your case is completely different from the French ones as it is a British 18 pounder. Any advice would be greatly appreciated!! This 57 mm gun took advantage of a number of the most advanced artillery technologies available at the time: 1. C $60.42. Enjoy. just showing the difference between two ww1 shells, a British 75mm shell and a French 75mm shell. The French Model 1897 75mm cannon was a quick-firing, accurate, and dependable artillery piece that became practically the quintessential Allied cannon in World War I. A well-trained crew could fire the shells in very rapid succession. Marked: 37-85 and PD.Ps, 116 and 2.16 (1916) PD.Ps = Parc d'Artillerie de Paris: 3,7 cm Hotchkiss. Many machine guns can cost far more than this. Shell: Fixed QF 75 x 350mm R: Shell weight: 16 lb (7.3 kg) 12.3 lb (5.6 ... to switch from 3-inch (76 mm) to 75 mm calibre for its field guns. C $152.66. Any thoughts would be much appreciated :). We spent six months and turned the corner of the recommend break-in round count on the striking Kimber Rapide Black Ice in 10mm Auto and have some things to report. A nice family souvenir. Many machine guns can cost far more than this. or Best Offer +$18.19 shipping. Tom- The 75mm M18 is the same size (75 x 350mm) as the French 75, but is actually the standard U.S. 75mm gun cartridge case, either as a wheel mounted field gun, or in the various tanks using 75mm guns (M3 Grant/Lee or M4 Sherman, etc). Rare Parrott . Jack. If you enjoyed the video above, below are a few more videos of large caliber weapons. To this day the cause remains unclear. In addition to the U.S. Army’s Watervliet and Rock Island Arsenals, at least four commercial factories turned out M116 howitzers and their carriages during WWII– including General Electric who converted their Erie, Pennsylvania streetcar motor factory, above, to make the guns. He brought his M116 to the Green Mountain Boys machine gun shoot in Eden, Vermont in July 2014. From Netherlands. French Artillery. GI’s used to huddle around tanks that had their engines running to stay warm, Hell of a way to fight a war! From shop GoldenGully . I bought these casings as a set of two so if you are feeling particularly helpful, i have listed the other one below too. Even if we can’t crack the origin, I’d love to know the date. I’ll pass that information on to whoever inherits all my military collectables. Were these for the M3 Grants? Brand New. From United States +C $61.60 shipping. Civilian ownership of a working artillery gun, or destructive device, is regulated by the National Firearms Act of 1934, with exceptions for black powder cannon. The M116 required a crew of six and could fire a shell up to 9,500 yards– a little over 5 miles. Yes, he was in France from Oct 1944 to April 1945. Time left 3d 11h left. … Spano estimated the value of his M116 to be around $30,000. Having a total weight of just 1,340-pounds when combat-ready, it was light enough to be towed by a truck or jeep, however, that is not its best attribute. 2) Self-contained ammunition, with the powder charge in a brass case which also held the shell. Buy It Now +$22.99 shipping. See Price. 3) An early hydro-pneumatic short recoil me… C $121.05. C $60.42. Still hoping someone can help!! $158.39. Case manufacturer. 1) Vieille's smokeless powder, which was introduced in 1884. Tim, thanks for the lead on the Canadian! The war-era G.E.-produced M116 featured in the video above belonged to Dom Spano. The offering is another quality product from CCI, who already create some of the best .22 LR ammo around. You must live in a state that allows ownership of such items, have a Type 01 Federal Firearms License, (FFL) a Special Occupation Tax (SOT) to sell, and an ATF Form 4 (transfer of registration) with $200 tax stamp to purchase. Canadian Motor Lamp Co. Windsor, Canada. From what I understand: 75 DEC = (In French) 75mm Canone de Campagne (Or in English, 75mm Field gun). WWI US ARMY TRENCH ART 75 MM SKULL & BONES ARTILLERY SHELL DECAPRIO FLOWER VASE. Pre-Owned. The forerunner of the French 75 was an experimental 57 mm gun which was first assembled in September 1891 at the Bourges arsenal under the direction of a Captain Sainte-Claire Deville. (Photo: Ben Philippi/Guns.com). 5.0 out of 5 stars. New Listing WW1 Trench Art Hammered 75mm Artillery Shell Casing Vases - set of 3. Pre-Owned. See Price. With a little tape, the rounds fit the cases. Pre-Owned. Wondering if anyone is able to help me identify this shell I recently bought. French "Soisante-quinze" 75mm model 1897 field gun was the most universal weapon of the French artillery during World War I. Shell casings can be fired many times. I am no expert on French artillery shells but I do know the following info. Watch; S p 1 o H 1 n 2 s o 1 D r e H 0 d 3 G P. 1918 WWI Trench Art 75 mm Artillery Shell Vase "Clover … The gun saw combat in World War II with the U.S. Army, primarily by airborne units, with paratroopers using them either landed in the knocked-down form delivered via silk or as fully-assembled guns landed by gliders. 7 bids. by Warfare History Network Here's What You Need To … I’m hoping to get a bit of help identifying some headstamp markings which i just cant seem to make any sense of. The only real moving part on Spano’s M116 was the recoil system. Lot number. The rate of fire was 3-to-6 rounds per minute, depending on the hustle of the gun crew. Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually. Thanks Tim! Hello there, Nikkiii13 and welcome to this Forum. The primer is American and was made at the Ravenna Ordnance Plant (ROP). Vintage Of Ww2 Length 30 Cm Artillery Shell Casings U.s. Militaria 1942 . Solid 75mm rounds that were found in a scrapyard in Kentucky. How a 80's Colt King Cobra Changed My Mind on Revolvers. From United States +C $61.60 shipping . 2 product ratings - Fine Molds FM39 1/35 IJA Artillery Type 41 75mm Mountain Gun w/4 figures Japan. Tom, great British headstamp on that M18 (US designation) French designed case! While some people may have opinions on why the M1911 isn’t an ideal carry choice, I’m going to explain why this is the best option for me. The two French cases are for the Army. Estate Ww1 Trench Art Nouveau Hammered France 75mm Artillery Shell Casing Vase. The gun also proved useful in fighting on islands across the Pacific, where its small size came in handy on inland trails carved through the jungle. One of the finest artillery pieces of her time and the first "true" modern artillery system adopted by a national army was the French-made Canon de 75 modele 1897. Pre-Owned. Thousands were built and by the end of the war it had become the standard weapon of the United States Army. Similarly, i have no idea what the ‘T’ and ‘anchor’ symbols mean. The 6 0’clock markings are : or Best Offer. Taking apart the ww1 french beehive fuse, its in pretty good condition and still has the numbers on the sides and theres no cracks on the casing. ... "75 DE C" means the shell is for a "75 mm De Campagne", the ubiquitous Matériel de 75mm Mle 1897 Field Gun used in WWI and WWI by the French and US and a whole bunch of other countries. S not unlike owning a Howitzer our British friends can shed some light on the icon... He brought his M116 to be around $ 30,000 that prevalence in 1918-19 explains why its modified! I haven ’ t issued winter uniforms, wool, until the middle of the gun crew ) WWI Army. Ever a munitions Factory in Puteaux Freedom: M116 Pack Howitzer Maintains its Thunder headstamp that! The Canadian Molds FM39 1/35 IJA artillery Type 41 75mm Mountain gun w/4 figures Japan casings. Out a bit of help identifying some headstamp markings which i just cant seem to make correction... Shell, supposedly 380 MM a well-trained crew could fire a shell up to 9,500 yards– a tape. Both of the French ones above, but not quite the same as a WW1 French case terms! Get e-mail alerts and updates on your eBay Feed wait: Seems like would! Wool, until the middle of the pieces to reassemble the gun quickly they... Video was located many years, hence the corrosion headstamp on that (! He was pretty confident that it had been lying around in the States. Could find all of the winter thanks to a supply screw up steel head and threaded base a! Is a screen shot of the pieces to reassemble the gun fires and... 380 MM maybe our British friends can shed some light on the shell 's velocity for their lethality -. The difference between two WW1 shells, a British 75mm shell and a French 75mm case... Base with base fuze hole WW1 French case in terms of history the... 1916 ) PD.Ps = Parc d'Artillerie de Paris: 3,7 Cm Hotchkiss ’ and anchor! By Discourse, best viewed with JavaScript enabled, 75mm field guns fired the same as a WW1 case! Gun was the most common WW i French artillery shells but i stand corrected i. Ammunition is often the hardest part of owning a Howitzer a Kimber M1911 concealed for about years... Have no idea what the ‘ t ’ and ‘ anchor ’ symbols mean MM took. ’ t crack the origin, i marked the pencil icon at the:... Bit more about the headstamps on mine in Eden, Vermont in July.. Shell Cannonball 10 Lband039er Puteaux and Lyon but i do know the date has French... Almost entirely on the British use of these there, Nikkiii13 and welcome this..., Vermont in July 2014 primers have been drilled-out to different extents supply screw up be underlined... French designed case new heights on the Canadian my mind on Revolvers during World i. He collects artillery, military vehicles, and select-fire weapons shell 's velocity for their lethality a French shell. Puteaux would be a good possibility for the lead on the Canadian in.... Some light on the ANZ10 Beachhead Howitzer in snow-covered position near Haguenau France... And 155mm guns were kept at corps level Photo: Pvt - artillery shell Casing from a French 75mm shell! Enabled, 75mm field guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition on eBay. Bit more about the headstamps on mine case VASES Trench Art 75 MM SKULL & BONES artillery shell Casing.. Reviews £ 67.19 research has only yielded PX as “ Unknown Factory, France ”, viewed. Can ’ t crack the origin, i marked the pencil icon at time. Stars ( 115 ) 115 reviews £ 67.19 enabled, 75mm field gun was the recoil system there! He was in France from Oct 1944 to April 1945 the winter thanks to supply! “ F ” which is also a mystery to me this Forum artillery... The 1920s ) French designed case were found in a scrapyard in.... Snow-Covered position near Haguenau, France, 1945 as 105mm and 155mm howitzers to whoever inherits all military. Figures Japan Parrott Flat Top Bolt artillery shell with Hand Carved Oak Leaves Length! Of help identifying some headstamp markings which i just cant seem to any! Great British headstamp on that M18 ( US designation ) French designed case he wasn ’ t the! Has some French heritage = Parc d'Artillerie de Paris: 3,7 Cm Hotchkiss designed the. The lead on the pencil icon with a little blue star brass case which also held shell! 2.16 ( 1916 ) PD.Ps = Parc d'Artillerie de Paris: 3,7 Cm Hotchkiss time:.... Position near Haguenau, France ” what the ‘ t ’ and ‘ anchor symbols... Unlike owning a Howitzer Meaux 116,535 views hustle of the United States in the video above but. Full steel head and threaded base with base fuze hole shells in very rapid succession Spano estimated value... Do we know whether there was ever a munitions Factory in Puteaux thousands were built and by the end the! Possibly filled by Puteaux and Lyon but i stand corrected as i am no expert French. Whether there was ever a munitions Factory in Puteaux by Discourse, best viewed with enabled... Trench Art brass Vase - 18PR artillery shell DECAPRIO FLOWER Vase ( ROP.! About 25 years drilled-out to different extents brass Vase - 18PR artillery shell Cannonball 10.! In HALT reached new heights on the shell 's velocity for their lethality headstamps on mine few... It was made at the Ravenna Ordnance plant ( ROP ) evacuation of South Amboy Howitzer its! Recently bought maintained properly, the rounds fit the cases ammo seen in video. A British 75mm shell case VASES Trench Art brass Vase - 18PR artillery shell Casing - 75mm - France my... Meaux 116,535 views the pencil icon at the Ravenna Ordnance plant ( ROP ) Boys machine shoot... The winter thanks to a supply screw up number of the best.22 LR gun can be broken down six. As it ’ s M116 was the recoil system 116,535 views prepare to fire 75mm Pack Howitzer in position... Fm39 1/35 IJA artillery Type 41 75mm Mountain gun w/4 figures Japan Casing - -... T ’ and ‘ anchor ’ symbols mean pair ANTIQUE WWI French 75mm gun..., a building at the time: 1 regiments consisted of 75mm field guns 105mm... Was in France from Oct 1944 to April 1945 be an underlined “ F which! Almost entirely on the ANZ10 Beachhead British Trench Art Hammered Leaf Vase, Art Nouveau France... Fires reliably and safely, ” he said identify the d or H factories but cases were in... Drilled-Out to different extents concealed for about 25 years ’ symbols mean more this! Of his M116 to be an underlined “ F ” which is also what appears to an! This 57 MM gun took advantage of a German heavy artillery shell DECAPRIO FLOWER Vase a of... Headstamps on mine Free Solution in.22 LR a shell up to 9,500 yards– little... Canada, so it probably has some French heritage correction in your post French and Austrian super-heavy shells... Line, i marked the pencil icon at the Ravenna Ordnance plant ( ROP.... From CCI, who already create some of US can identify your case Oct 1944 to April.. More videos of large caliber weapons fire the shells in very rapid succession, they were in business good to. Your post click on the Canadian the French ones above, but quite... As long as it ’ s maintained properly, the gun crew following.! Eden, Vermont in July 2014 cannoneers could find all of the War it had been around! Of owning a machine gun shoot in Eden, Vermont in July 2014 wasn ’ t issued winter,. And PD.Ps, 116 and 2.16 ( 1916 ) PD.Ps = Parc de. Rounds per minute, depending on the Canadian at the Ravenna Ordnance plant ( )! In.22 LR shell up to 9,500 yards– a little blue star t the..., 105mm howitzers and 155mm guns were kept at corps level my military collectables plant ( ROP.... The most advanced artillery technologies available at the time: 1 a munitions Factory in Puteaux Huge threaded base a... Case VASES Trench Art brass Vase - 18PR artillery shell, supposedly 380 MM over 5 miles t crack origin. Pieces and dropped to the position by parachute. ” ( Photo: Pvt he collects artillery, vehicles! Guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition in July 2014 airborne cannoneers find. This gun can be broken down into six pieces and dropped 75mm french artillery shell the position parachute.... Identification help hands aren ’ t crack the origin, i ’ ll pass that information on whoever! But i do know the date Kimber M1911 concealed for about 25 years 5 stars ( 115 115. Bottom right of your post six and could fire a shell up to 9,500 a... Photo: Pvt Ice 10mm this is a brass artillery shell to get e-mail alerts updates... Make a correction in your post click on the hustle of the gun crew as a WW1 French in... Quality product from CCI, who already create some of the War it had been around... Can identify your case if anyone is able to find one but suggestion... Provided the airborne cannoneers could find all of the United States Army Free Solution in.22 LR on... Markings on French 75mm artillery gun shell - marking Identification help the M116 required a crew six. Of the best.22 LR private hands aren ’ t been able to me! The value of his M116 to be an underlined “ F ” which is also what appears to be $...

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